Monday, May 14, 2007


History of Higher Education in Nepal
Prior to the establishment of the first college in the country, Tri-Chandra College in 1918, higher education in Nepal was nonexistent. There were a few schools but no colleges. There were, however, two areas for higher education; Sanskrit and English.


Sanskrit had been the main field of teaching and learning in the country. A Sanskrit school by the name of Sanskrit Pradhan Pathshala was established by the then Rana Prime Minister Ranoddip Singh around 1877. Later, during the Rana regime, more Sanskrit schools were opened in various places of the country such as Dingla, Janakpur and Dang. A large number of graduates from these schools would join the University at Darbhanga or Kashi across the boarder in India. Students seeking higher education, but who could not afford to travel to India would either continue in their respective native schools where they would be taught within the school curriculum time by qualified senior teachers or be coached privately by their teachers. In 1948, the Nepal Sanskrit College with affiliation to the Sanskrit University in Baneras, India was established. It offered Uttara Madhyarna (Intermediate), Shastri (Bachelor), and Acharya (Master) courses.

English Stream

In the changing situation, Sanskrit education alone could not meet the needs of society. In 1854, Durbar School was opened in Kathmandu by Jung Bahadur, the first Rana Prime Minister. However, the school virtually remained a family school, catering to the education needs of the Ranas and the Nepalese elite. However, In 1883, Prime Minister Bir Shumsher declared it open for the public. The School Leaving certificate (SLC/Matriculation, Grade ten ) examination used to be conducted by the University of Calcutta, India. In 1934 the Nepal SLC Examination Board was founded and started conducting the SLC examination in Nepal. People who could afford further education following the SLC would go to India, while others would appear as private candidates in Indian universities or end their journey to any further education.

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